Tulum (“wall” in the Mayan language) is undoubtedly an icon of the Mayan culture long before the arrival of the Spanish, in this site the descending god was venerated, it is believed that the name Tulum was given to the ancient city of Zamá After being abandoned by its inhabitants, remaining in ruins as we currently know it.
Most of these buildings were built in the post-classical period of the Mayan civilization between the 12th and 15th centuries, although inscriptions belonging to the 6th century have been found, which tells us about a city that emerged and became relevant for centuries, the mixture of Mayan and Aztec architecture.
Is clear, one of the most imposing buildings is El Castillo, which was built on the edge of a cliff by the sea and in which we find references to the Sun and Venus, one of the main stars for the Mayans.
Tulum was a city of great importance for the area, since it was an obligatory stop on the trade routes from the beaches of the Mayan empire, now Quintana Roo, to the great Tenochtitlán, present-day Mexico City.
Formed at the end of the 10th century among the most important señoríos (priestly houses), the League of Mayapán was made up of Itzáes from Chichén-itzá, Tutul xiúes from Uxmal, Cocomes from Mayapán and other señoríos such as Itzamal, Zamá (Tulum) and Ichpaatun, where power was exercised by the Itzáes of Chichén-itzá until the Cocomes declared war on them, displacing them towards the Guatemalan Petén at the end of the 12th century.
Subsequently, hostilities continued between the Tutul xiúes and the Cocomes, who through alliances managed to maintain control until the 14th century when Ah Xupan Liu of the Tutul xiúes, supported by some Itzaes who remained in the area, managed to destroy the ruling family, leaving only a son of the family that was not in the place during the massacre and who would later return to found the city of Tibolón in Sotuta, as a result of these events the Mayan people fragmented due to the struggles between the heirs who claimed their ancient lineages, This situation was capitalized by Francisco de Montejo to conquer the Yucatan peninsula around the 16th century.
In addition to its spectacular ruins and archaeological sites, Tulum is also nature, it is tradition, it is calm and it is magic. Playa Paraíso, cataloged as one of the most beautiful in the Riviera Maya, is at the foot of the cliff where El Castillo is located, on this beach you can go to the reef in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, one of the most enigmatic and fascinating underwater scenes in the world.
Caribbean, here you can find all kinds of marine life, corals, multicolored fish, mollusks, starfish among many other species.
Another unmissable place also in this now municipality of Tulum, is the Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve (Gate of Heaven in Mayan), a cultural heritage of humanity since 1987, with its impressive half a million hectares, in this area predominates the limestone, which hinders the formation of bodies of surface water, favoring the outcrop of wells called Cenotes, off the coast of this natural reserve is the second largest barrier reef in the world only surpassed by the great barrier to the east off the Australian coast.